Zero to One By Peter Thiel : 18 short Notes |Review | Summary

The Book describe itself in a short Passage

Doing what someone else already knows how to do takes the world from 1 to n, adding more of something familiar. But when you do something new, you go from 0 to 1. The next Bill Gates will not build an operating system. The next Larry Page or Sergey Brin won’t make a search engine. Tomorrow’s champions will not win by competing ruthlessly in today’s marketplace. They will escape competition altogether, because their businesses will be unique.

I wanted to learn how to think differently/create a unique business, So i purchased this book with big enthusiasm from reading many reviews. It’s not good enough to say it was splendid even though the books is recommended by his friends ( Mark Zuckerberg, Elon Musk and Nassim Nicholas Taleb). Mostly this books is being proud about his business and his friends business but its a good journey understanding the business from 90’s to this century. And you could read this book mainly to understand about creating a monopoly in business. Except that it’s merely like a list of success stories compiled in a book with  Charts and information of his friends companies.

so who is Peter thiel ?

The 18 Notes from that book about creating a business from 0 to 1. 

1. Horizontal VS Vertical Business:

Horizontal business(or extensive) progress means copying things that work going from 1 to n and its easy to imaginable  because we already know what it looks like. Vertical business (or intensive) progress means doing new things – going form 0 to 1 and its harder to imagine because its requires something nobody else has ever done.

Example: If you take one typewriter and build 100, you have made horizontal business(Like globalization of what works). If you have a typewriter and build a word processor, you have made a vertical progress. (Technology)

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2. Four Big Lessons from Dot-Com Crash 1995-2002:

  • Make incremental advances. Small, incremental steps are the only safe path forward.
  • Stay lean and flexible. All companies must be lean which is code for unplanned and planning is arrogant and inflexible. Instead “Iterate” & treat entrepreneurship as agnostic experimentation.
  • Improve on the competition. Instead of creating a new market prematurely, build your company by improving on recognizable products already offered by successful competitors.
  • Focus on product, not sales. if your product requires advertising or salespeople to sell it. it’s not good enough:  Technology is primarily about product development, not distribution.

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3. What is Valuable company: Perfect Competition & Monopoly  / Turnover or Profit?

Ever wondered which type of company is really valuable(In terms of growth, future and Profit) on long Run? It’s a company which has monopoly business and unique in nature.

Example: Think of Airlines and Google. Airline competes each other for the same audience with different pricing level. Airlines companies serves millions of passengers(&hundreds of billion dollars) with average fare $178(As on 2012) but makes only 37 cents per passenger where Google has brought it only $50billion on 2012 with 21% of revenue as profits more than 100 times the airline industry’s profit margin that year.

Why? Airlines compete each other but Google stands alone (That’s monopoly). In Economics, every firm in a competitive market is undifferentiated and sells the same homogeneous product, so they must sell at whatever the market price the market determines.

Cons of competitive Market: New firms will enter the market, increase supply, drive prices down, some suffer losses and some will fold. Under perfect competition, no company makes an economic profit in the long run.

Google is a good example of a company that went from 0 to 1: It hasn’t competed each other since the early 2000, when it distanced itself from Yahoo! and Microsoft.


If you want to create and capture lasting value, don’t build an undifferentiated commodity business.

4. Why do people compete each other and whats the result!

Our educational system both drives and reflects our obsession with competition that pervades our society and distorts our thinking. Grades in Academic make student’s mentality with competitiveness and strives for highest marks status and credentials. This obsess them on long run and limit their to a circle.

In a startup, each wanted to prosper independently but as they grew, they began to focus on each other.

The result?

Windows VS Chrome, Bing VS Google Search,  Explorer vs Chrome, Office vs Docs, and surface vs Nexus – Perfect competition.

When Microsoft and Google began focusing each other, Apple took over them with monopoly business with market capitalization of $500 Billion while Google and Microsoft combined $467 Billion. Peter also advice about fighting each other(competition).

sometimes you do have to fight, fight and win. There is no middle ground: don’t throw any punches, or strike hard and end it quickly

5. Delayed Revenue in Technology company

Technology company often lose money on first few years: it takes time to build valuable things and that means delayed revenue because it take at least 10 to 15 years in the future for ROI.

Example: LinkedIn

6. Characteristics of Monopoly

  • Propriety Technology
  • Network Effects
  • Economics of scale
  • Branding

7. Monopoly  1: Proprietary Technology – 10X improvements

Proprietary technology(PT) is the most substantive advantage a company can have which makes difficult or impossible to replicate.

Example: Google’s search algorithms, which returns results better than anyone else’s.

A PT must be 10X better than closest substitute to lead to a real monopolistic advantage. The closest way to do meet this to invent something new.

Example 1: Amazon did this by offering at least 10 times as many books as competitors.

Example 2: Apple did this through superior integrated design by improving 10X in Ipad than Microsoft Windows XP Tablet and Nokia Tablet.

8. Monopoly 2: Network Effects 

Example: Facebook.

Network effects businesses must start with especially small markets. Facebook started with just Harvard students – Mark Zuckerberg’s first product was designed to get all his classmates signed up, not to attract Mass.

9. Monopoly 3: Economies of Scale

If you own a yoga studio, you’ll be able to serve to only certain numbers even though you open chain of. But most of Software startups (exclude service, only product based) can enjoy especially dramatic economies of scale because the original cost of producing another copy of product is close to Zero. [Not agreeable with Yoga Example]

10. Building a monopoly: Start small and Monopolize

Every startup should start with a very small market. The reason is

  • Easier to dominate a small market than a larger one.
  • Easier to reach a few thousand people who really love our product, where if you choose big market which is already served by competing companies is bad choice as its lack a good starting point or open to competition. So its hard to reach.

#Note: small doesn’t mean nonexistent. and not shrink the market in order to seem differentiated.

11. Building a monopoly: Scaling up like Amazon (Highly Strategic)

Jeff Bezo’s Amazon founding was to dominate all retail market but he started with small market (books). Then Amazon become the dominant solution for books. There he got 2 opportunities: Expand to the number of people or expanding to the adjacent markets. He chose the latter starting with CD, videos, and software.

12. Last great development will be first

Meaning its better to make last great development in your market which makes stay ahead of your competitors and that’s the 10X last improvement lead to monopoly profits

13. Success is never Accidental – Jack Dorsey, Twitter founder

victory awaits him who has everything in order(well planned) – Luck People call it.

14. Spray and Pray is a stupid Strategy

An entrepreneur cannot “diversify”. And cannot run dozens of companies at the same time and then hope that one of the them works out well at the early stage of companies (not to contradict with well established companies).

Same like VC error lies in expecting that venture returns will be normally distributed: that is bad companies will fail, mediocre one will stay flat and good one will return 2X and hope that winners counterbalance losers. but it results with no hits at all.

15. Look for Secrets

what happens when company stops believing in secret ? There is no innovation, thus leads to no new products, no growth.

Example: HP was worth $135 billion on Mid-2000. They stopped inventing things on 2000 (before their successful invention of deskjet, omnibook, officejet), started acquiring business like compaq without creating anything new. As a result 2012 HP was worth just $23billion,

Successful secret finders: Airbnb, Lyft and Uber.


The best place to look for secrets is where no one else is looking

16. On Marketing

No early-stage startup can match big companies marketing budget. a startup cannot runs ad on TV which is biggest megaphone, So spend your budget according to your ability and not compete with big players.

If you can get just one distribution channel to work, you have a great business. if you try for several but don’t nail one, you’re finished.

Selling your company to the media is necessary part of selling to everyone else and never assume that people will admire your company without a public relations strategy.

17. On Founders

A unique founder can make authoritative decisions, inspire strong personal loyalty and plan ahead for decades. And don’t over estimate your own power as an individual. Founders are important not because they are the only ones who work the value, but rather because a great founder can bring out the best work from employees at his company.

18. Conclusion: For yourself & Singularity

Your task is to find singular ways to create new things that will make the future not just different, but better to go from 0 to 1.


The essential first step is to think for yourself.

Only by seeing our world a new, as fresh and strange as it was to the ancients who saw it first, can we both re-create it and preserve it for the future.


Some of things not agreeable are

– Most of the companies he took for example are his invested companies showing indirectly that they are worth to be invested ( Too much of pages speaking only about Elon Musk Companies)

– Most of the professionals taken as an example and succeed in the books are his friends. ( Is this like selling ideas or seeding a wrong views in people mind ? )

welcome your thoughts on this…

From Stackoverflow: Difference of Apache-Nginx-Mongrel-WEBrick- Phusion passanger – Capistrano


As a newbie to Ruby on rails, i often came across this names and have a huge confusion on knowing all this. But the great article from stackoverflow members, i got a clear cut of all this with difference. Thanks to

Am not taking credits to this article. I feel sharing this which may be useful and i too can have backup.

The word “deployment” can have two meanings depending on the context. You are also confusing the roles of Apache/Nginx with the roles of other components.

Apache vs Nginx

They’re both web servers. They can serve static files but – with the right modules – can also serve dynamic web apps e.g. those written in PHP. Apache is more popular and has more features, Nginx is smaller and faster and has less features.

Neither Apache nor Nginx can serve Rails apps out-of-the-box. To do that you need to use Apache/Nginx in combination with some kind of add-on, described later.

Apache and Nginx can also act as reverse proxies, meaning that they can take an incoming HTTP request and forward it to another server which also speaks HTTP. When that server responds with an HTTP response, Apache/Nginx will forward the response back to the client. You will learn later why this is relevant.

Mongrel vs WEBrick

Mongrel is a Ruby “application server”. In concrete terms this means that Mongrel is an application which:

  1. Loads your Rails app inside its own process space.
  2. Sets up a TCP socket, allowing it to communicate with the outside world (e.g. the Internet). Mongrel listens for HTTP requests on this socket and passes the request data to the Rails app. The Rails app then returns an object which describes how the HTTP response should look like, and Mongrel takes care of converting it to an actual HTTP response (the actual bytes) and sends it back over the socket.

WEBrick does the same thing. Differences with Mongrel:

  • It is written entirely in Ruby. Mongrel is part Ruby part C; mostly Ruby, but its HTTP parser is written in C for performance.
  • WEBrick is slower and less robust. It has some known memory leaks and some known HTTP parsing problems.
  • WEBrick is usually only used as the default server during development because WEBrick is included in Ruby by default. Mongrel needs to be installed separately. Nobody uses WEBrick in production environments.

Another Ruby application server that falls under the same category is Thin. While it’s internally different from both Mongrel and WEBrick it falls under the same category when it comes to usage and its overall role in the server stack.

Mongrel and the world

While Mongrel speaks HTTP, nobody puts Mongrel directly on port 80, i.e. when you visit a Rails site your browser never interfaces directly with Mongrel. Mongrel is always put behind a reverse proxy like Apache or Nginx for several reasons:

  • Each Mongrel-served Rails app can only handle 1 request concurrently. If you want to handle 2 requests concurrently you need to run multiple Mongrel instances, each serving the same Rails app. This set of Mongrel processes is called a Mongrel cluster. You must then setup Apache or Nginx to reverse proxy to this cluster. Apache/Nginx will take care of distributing requests between the instances in the cluster.
  • Mongrel can serve static files, but it’s not particularly good at it. Apache and Nginx can do it faster. People typically set up Apache/Nginx to serve static files directly, but forward requests that don’t correspond with static files to the Mongrel cluster.

You also need to monitor your Mongrel processes. If a process crashes (e.g. because of a bug in your Rails app) then you need to restart it.

Phusion Passenger

Phusion Passenger is also a Ruby application server, but it works differently from Mongrel. Phusion Passenger integrates directly into Apache or Nginx. Instead of starting a Mongrel cluster for your app, and configuring Apache/Nginx to serve static files and/or reverse proxying requests to the Mongrel cluster depending on circumstances, with Phusion you only need to do several things:

  1. You edit the web server config file and specify the location of your Rails app’s ‘public’ directory.
  2. There is no step 2.

With Phusion Passenger you do not need to start a cluster or manage processes – Phusion Passenger takes care of all that for you. With Mongrel your cluster always consists of the same number of processes, but Phusion Passenger can start processes for you when your site becomes busy, and shut down processes for you when your site becomes less busy in order to conserve system resources. If your app crashes Phusion Passenger will automatically restart it for you. Phusion Passenger is, for the most part, written in C++. This makes it very fast.

Phusion Passenger can be compared to mod_php for Apache. Just like mod_php allows Apache to serve PHP apps almost magically, Phusion Passenger allows Apache (and also Nginx!) to serve Ruby apps almost magically. Phusion Passenger’s goal is to make everything Just Work(tm) with as less hassle as possible, in so far it is possible; if the system is broken then obviously Phusion Passenger can’t help you either, but at least it will try to give a descriptive error message so that you know how to fix your system.

At this time Phusion Passenger is the most popular Ruby app server for the above reasons.

Note that Phusion Passenger can also run standalone, that is without needing Apache or Nginx. Phusion Passenger Standalone works a bit like Mongrel: you type passenger start in your Rails app’s directory, and it will launch a Phusion Passenger web server which speaks HTTP and directly serves your web app. Unlike Mongrel, Phusion Passenger Standalone can be directly attached to port 80; it still takes care of starting/stopping/monitoring processes for you, and a single Phusion Passenger Standalone instance can handle multiple concurrent requests.


Capistrano is something completely different. In all the previous sections, “deployment” refers to the act of starting your Rails app in an application server so that it becomes accessible to visitors. But before that can happen one typically needs to do some preparation work, such as:

  • Uploading the Rails app’s code and files to the server machine.
  • Installing libraries that your app depends on.
  • Setting up or migrating the database.
  • Starting and stopping any daemons that your app might rely on, such as DelayedJob workers or whatever.
  • Any other things that need to be done when you’re setting up your application.

In the context of Capistrano, “deployment” refers to doing all this preparation work. Capistrano is not an application server. Instead, it is a tool for automating all that preparation work. You tell Capistrano where your server is and which commands need to be run every time you deploy a new version of your app, and Capistrano will take care of uploading the Rails app to the server for you and running the commands you specified.

Capistrano is always used in combination with an application server. It does not replace application servers. Vice-versa, application servers do not replace Capistrano, they can be used in combination with Capistrano.

Of course you don’t have to use Capistrano. If you prefer to upload your Rails app with FTP and manually running the same steps of commands every time, then you can do that. Other people got tired of it so they automate those steps in Capistrano.

8 Eye Opening Entrepreneurial Teachings from Dalai Lama

The teachings of Dalai Lama have always been a great source of inspiration and enlightenment for many successful personalities around the globe. Forbes compiles a list of lessons that any entrepreneur can draw from the teachings of the holy Tibetan Monk.

Let us take a look at Dalai Lama’s teachings which lead us to entrepreneurial success.

1. Do what you love to the fullest

Always follow your heart for every question that arises in your mind. Listening to your inside and working towards it to the fullest is the most simple and true way to achieve success. In some situations, the rate at which you attain success might be slow, but at least you have the satisfaction that you are doing something completely on your own intuition and not under any pressure. At the end, it is your life, your career and your enterprise, and only you must be the master of your conscience.

2. Make the noble sacrifice

Judge your achievements or success with the amount of sacrifice that you had to make and all that you had to give up in order to attain it. Any achievement is lifeless and bland without the pain of sacrifice. Sacrifice can be of many types; some times it is just a long wait, relationship or even comfort. But you are to make the decision of prioritizing and ascending towards the greater good.

3. Lose gloriously when you do

Entrepreneurship is not always about climbing the ladder of success. Sometimes there are hard falls and you must not lose your honor in the dark times. Adapt to the harsh times, learn from the mistakes you did that led to this day and never forget the true lessons you have learnt in life. It is very easy to lose heart in your venture and give in, but only the strong people rise and fight back.

4. Stay prepared

You must always stay laced and on your toes for any kind of situation. Learn the rules of the game deep enough so that you are always driven by your instincts to what is probably the fittest thing to do at a particular turn of events. You should always stay brushed with your rulebook and keep your eyes open.

5. Treasure your relations

Trivial disputes, especially related to money, can ruin the strongest bonds of affection. Never let financial issues drift you apart from people who have stayed so close to your heart since the beginning and been a support in your happiness as well as troubles. Nurture relationships and build bridges. Become an enabler, says Forbes.

6. Do not lose your values

The journey towards entrepreneurial success calls for many changes that you need to incur in your personal and professional life. In order to dedicate yourself completely to your work, do not forget the hard earned values because you lose all your passion and devotion once you are away from your teachings and once you fall, you will shatter.

7. Follow the three Rs

Relationship with your peers and employees boils down to basically three Rs that every entrepreneur must religiously follow to be a good leader. One must Respect Others, Respect himself and be Responsible of actions in all aspects of venture at all stages.

8. Silence is the best answer

When you are criticized for your failure and you find it harsh, there is an undying surge inside that provokes you to confront and answer back. Many a times this can lead to devastation and the best thing to do in such a situation to keep the cool and ignore everything they say. Your silence towards them would be a stone cold answer to all the mockeries.


What i know about Backbone.js

while i’m searching Cutting edge technologies to learn the basic things about them. I found some good links, description, coding and tutorials. I’m posting my notes of backbone.js which i collected around the web. Sorry, if my notes doesn’t makes sense.

Backbone.js is basically an uber-light framework that allows you to structure your Javascript code in anMVC(Model, View, Controller) fashion where…

Model is part of your code that retrieves and populates the data,

View is the HTML representation of this model(views change as models change, etc)

and Controller that in this case allows you to save the state of your javascript application via a hashbang url, for example:

1.source: stack over flow question

2.Interesting presentation from heroku

3. Here is a set of great tutorials on using Backbone with Rails as the back-end:

CloudEdit: A Backbone.js Tutorial with Rails:

if you are an advanced learner of backbone.js. Share the resources links.

khan academy organisation- A free world-class education

Good morning to you guys. i got to saw this site via my twitter feed. its a useful site which provide a world class education tutorials and many resources. so make use of it.

About KA:

A free world-class education for anyone anywhere.

The Khan Academy is an organization on a mission. We’re a not-for-profit with the goal of changing education for the better by providing a free world-class education to anyone anywhere.

All of the site’s resources are available to anyone. It doesn’t matter if you are a student, teacher, home-schooler, principal, adult returning to the classroom after 20 years, or a friendly alien just trying to get a leg up in earthly biology. The Khan Academy’s materials

Continue reading

Best College in India

The article published by THE SUNDAY INDIAN Magazine based on a perception survey conducted by the Indian Council of Market Research(ICMR), TSI has compelled a list of top colleges and courses for students who ‘fail’ to break into the ‘top’ Colleges.  The survey has conducted in metros as well as the other educational areas such as Bhubaneswar, Pune,,etc, covered students, parents and faculty members. By their responses, the list has drawn the colleges that they have applied to had they secured under 90per cent marks.

This might help you at look at things from a different, more enlighted, perspective.

Course wise

  • ARTS
  • BBA
  • LAW
  • BCA


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Interview tips to improve yourself

This are some interview tips which read from internet stuff.

Questions are common about you and the particular job only, not other things. So, be honest, truthful and bold. Don’t fear, practice makes a man perfect. you can do it.

1. Tell me about yourself
The most often asked question in interviews. You need to have a short statement prepared in your mind. Be careful that it does not sound rehearsed. Limit it to work-related items unless instructed otherwise. Talk about things you have done and jobs you have held that relate to the position you are interviewing for. Start with the item farthest back and work up to the present.

2. What experience do you have in this field?
Speak about specifics that relate to the position you are applying for. If you do not have specific experience, get as close as you can.

3. Do you consider yourself successful?
You should always answer yes and briefly explain why. A good explanation is that you have set goals, and you have met some and are on track to achieve the others.

4. What do you know about this organization?
This question is one reason to do some research on the organization before the interview. Find out where they have been and where they are going. What are the current issues and who are the major players?

5. What have you done to improve your knowledge in the last year?
Try to include improvement activities that relate to the job. A wide variety of activities can be mentioned as positive self-improvement. Have some good ones handy to mention.

6. Are you applying for other jobs?
Be honest but do not spend a lot of time in this area. Keep the focus on this job and what you can do for this organization. Anything else is a distraction.

7. Why do you want to work for this organization?
This may take some thought and certainly, should be based on the research you have done on the organization. Sincerity is extremely important here and will easily be used. Relate it to your long-term career goals.

8. Do you know anyone who works for us?
Be aware of the policy on relatives working for the organization. This can affect your answer even though they asked about friends not relatives. Be careful to mention a friend only if they are well thought of.

9. What kind of salary do you need?
A loaded question. A nasty little game that you will probably lose if you answer first. So, do not answer it. Instead, say something like, that’s a tough question. Can you tell me the range for this position? In most cases, the interviewer, taken off guard, will tell you. If not, say that it can depend on the details of the job. Then give a wide range.

10. Are you a team player?
You are, of course, a team player. Be sure to have examples ready. Specifics that show you often perform for the good of the team rather than for yourself is good evidence of your team attitude. Do not brag; just say it in a matter-of-fact tone? This is a key point.

11. How long would you expect to work for us if hired?
Specifics here are not good. Something like this should work: I’d like it to be a long time. Or As long as we both feel I’m doing a good job.

12. Have you ever had to fire anyone? How did you feel about that?
This is serious. Do not make light of it or in any way seem like you like to fire people. At the same time, you will do it when it is the right thing to do. When it comes to the organization versus the individual who has created a harmful situation, you will protect the organization. Remember firing is not the same as layoff or reduction in force.

13. What is your philosophy towards work?
The interviewer is not looking for a long or flowery dissertation here. Do you have strong feelings that the job gets done? Yes. That’s the type of answer were that works best here. Short and positive, showing a benefit to the organization.
14. if you had enough money to retire right now, would you?
Answer yes if you would. But since you need to work, this is the type of work you prefer. Do not say yes if you do not mean it.

15. Have you ever been asked to leave a position?
If you have not, say no. If you have, be honest, brief and avoid saying negative things about the people or organization involved.

16. Explain how you would be an asset to this organization?
You should be anxious for this question. It gives you a chance to highlight your best points as they relate to the position being discussed. Give a little advance thought to this relationship.

17. Why should we hire you?
Point out how your assets meet what the organization needs. Do not mention any other candidates to make a comparison.

18. Tell me about a suggestion you have made?
Have a good one ready. Be sure and use a suggestion that was accepted and was then considered successful. One related to the type of work applied for is a real plus.
19. What is your greatest strength?
Numerous answers are good, just stay positive. A few good examples: Your ability to prioritize, Your problem-solving skills, Your ability to work under pressure, Your ability to focus on projects, Your professional expertise, Your leadership skills, Your positive attitude
20. Tell me about your dream job.
Stay away from a specific job. You cannot win. If you say the job you are contending for is it, you strain credibility. If you say another job is it, you plant the suspicion that you will be dissatisfied with this position if hired. The best is to stay genetic and say something like: A job where I love the work, like the people, can contribute and can’t wait to get to work.

Inspirational Steve Jobs Quotes

Im a Apple Lover. So, when i searched about steve and his company development. I found that Apple become popular ’cause of steve words. Here are some of them.

“Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.”

“Being the richest man in the cemetery doesn’t matter to me … Going to bed at night saying we’ve done something wonderful… that’s what matters to me.”

“We’ve gone through the operating system and looked at everything and asked how can we simplify this and make it more powerful at the same time.”

“Be a yardstick of quality. Some people aren’t used to an environment where excellence is expected.”

“I want to put a ding in the universe.”

“I was worth over $1,000,000 when I was 23, and over $10,000,000 when I was 24, and over $100,000,000 when I was 25, and it wasn’t that important because I never did it for the money.”

“The Japanese have hit the shores like dead fish. They’re just like dead fish washing up on the shores.”

“Unfortunately, people are not rebelling against Microsoft. They don’t know any better.”

“Bill Gates‘d be a broader guy if he had dropped acid once or gone off to an ashram when he was younger.”

“The only problem with Microsoft is they just have no taste. They have absolutely no taste. And I don’t mean that in a small way, I mean that in a big way, in the sense that they don’t think of original ideas, and they don’t bring much culture into their products.”

“My job is to not be easy on people. My job is to make them better.”

“We made the buttons on the screen look so good you’ll want to lick them.”

“Click. Boom. Amazing!”

“You can’t just ask customers what they want and then try to give that to them. By the time you get it built, they’ll want something new.”

“Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.”

“Why join the navy if you can be a pirate?”

“A lot of companies have chosen to downsize, and maybe that was the right thing for them. We chose a different path. Our belief was that if we kept putting great products in front of customers, they would continue to open their wallets.”

“Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower.”

“Recruiting is hard. It’s just finding the needles in the haystack. You can’t know enough in a one-hour interview.
So, in the end, it’s ultimately based on your gut. How do I feel about this person? What are they like when they’re challenged? I ask everybody that: ‘Why are you here?’ The answers themselves are not what you’re looking for. It’s the meta-data.”

“We’ve had one of these before, when the dot-com bubble burst. What I told our company was that we were just going to invest our way through the downturn, that we weren’t going to lay off people, that we’d taken a tremendous amount of effort to get them into Apple in the first place – the last thing we were going to do is lay them off.”

“I mean, some people say, ‘Oh, God, if [Jobs] got run over by a bus, Apple would be in trouble.’ And, you know, I think it wouldn’t be a party, but there are really capable people at Apple.
My job is to make the whole executive team good enough to be successors, so that’s what I try to do.”

“It’s not about pop culture, and it’s not about fooling people, and it’s not about convincing people that they want something they don’t. We figure out what we want. And I think we’re pretty good at having the right discipline to think through whether a lot of other people are going to want it, too. That’s what we get paid to do.
We just want to make great products. (I think he means “insanely great products!“)”

“So when a good idea comes, you know, part of my job is to move it around, just see what different people think, get people talking about it, argue with people about it, get ideas moving among that group of 100 people, get different people together to explore different aspects of it quietly, and, you know – just explore things.”

“When I hire somebody really senior, competence is the ante. They have to be really smart. But the real issue for me is, Are they going to fall in love with Apple? Because if they fall in love with Apple, everything else will take care of itself.
They’ll want to do what’s best for Apple, not what’s best for them, what’s best for Steve, or anybody else. (this actually reiterates my oft-repeated mantra of “ubiquitous evangelism” in companies)”

“People think focus means saying yes to the thing you’ve got to focus on. But that’s not what it means at all. It means saying no to the hundred other good ideas that there are. You have to pick carefully.”

“Our DNA is as a consumer company – for that inpidual customer who’s voting thumbs up or thumbs down. That’s who we think about. And we think that our job is to take responsibility for the complete user experience. And if it’s not up to par, it’s our fault, plain and simply.”

“That happens more than you think, because this is not just engineering and science. There is art, too. Sometimes when you’re in the middle of one of these crises, you’re not sure you’re going to make it to the other end. But we’ve always made it, and so we have a certain degree of confidence, although sometimes you wonder.

I think the key thing is that we’re not all terrified at the same time. I mean, we do put our heart and soul into these things.”

“We don’t get a chance to do that many things, and every one should be really excellent. Because this is our life.

Life is brief, and then you die, you know?

And we’ve all chosen to do this with our lives. So it better be damn good. It better be worth it.”

“Almost everything–all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure–these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.”

“Here’s to the crazy ones, the misfits, the rebels, the troublemakers, the round pegs in the square holes… the ones who see things differently — they’re not fond of rules… You can quote them, disagree with them, glorify or vilify them, but the only thing you can’t do is ignore them because they change things… they push the human race forward, and while some may see them as the crazy ones, we see genius, because the ones who are crazy enough to think that they can change the world, are the ones who do.”

“In most people’s vocabularies, design means veneer. It’s interior decorating. It’s the fabric of the curtains of the sofa. But to me, nothing could be further from the meaning of design. Design is the fundamental soul of a human-made creation that ends up expressing itself in successive outer layers of the product or service.”

“So we went to Atari and said, ‘Hey, we’ve got this amazing thing, even built with some of your parts, and what do you think about funding us? Or we’ll give it to you. We just want to do it. Pay our salary, we’ll come work for you.’ And they said, ‘No.’ So then we went to Hewlett-Packard, and they said, ‘Hey, we don’t need you. You haven’t got through college yet.”

“The people who are doing the work are the moving force behind the Macintosh. My job is to create a space for them, to clear out the rest of the organization and keep it at bay.”

“Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma – which is living with the results of other people’s thinking. Don’t let the noise of other’s opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.”

“I’m the only person I know that’s lost a quarter of a billion dollars in one year…. It’s very character-building.”

“I’m as proud of what we don’t do as I am of what we do.”

“Quality is more important than quantity. One home run is much better than two doubles.”

“I’ve always wanted to own and control the primary technology in everything we do.”

“It comes from saying no to 1,000 things to make sure we don’t get on the wrong track or try to do too much.”

“It’s really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of times, people don’t know what they want until you show it to them.”

“Innovation has nothing to do with how many R&D dollars you have. When Apple came up with the Mac, IBM was spending at least 100 times more on R&D. It’s not about money. It’s about the people you have, how you’re led, and how much you get it.”

“Insanely Great!”

“I’m convinced that about half of what separates the successful entrepreneurs from the non-successful ones is pure perseverance.”

“It’s rare that you see an artist in his 30s or 40s able to really contribute something amazing.”


“I feel like somebody just punched me in the stomach and knocked all my wind out. I’m only 30 years old and I want to have a chance to continue creating things. I know I’ve got at least one more great computer in me. And Apple is not going to give me a chance to do that.”

“I didn’t see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.”

“Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared water or do you want a chance to change the world?”

“The products suck! There’s no sex in them anymore!”

“The cure for Apple is not cost-cutting. The cure for Apple is to innovate its way out of its current predicament.”

“If I were running Apple, I would milk the Macintosh for all it’s worth — and get busy on the next great thing. The PC wars are over. Done. Microsoft won a long time ago.”

“You know, I’ve got a plan that could rescue Apple. I can’t say any more than that it’s the perfect product and the perfect strategy for Apple. But nobody there will listen to me.”

“Apple has some tremendous assets, but I believe without some attention, the company could, could, could — I’m searching for the right word — could, could die.”

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Career at Movie Jobs-Directing and More

The director of a film is one of the most important members in a movie. They focus on creating the artistic vision for a film and then utilizing the entire film crew to fulfill that vision. Although a director has a lot of creative control, their vision must be in accordance with the movie’s Producer.

Foley Artist
Possibly the most unique job within the film industry. The term Foley actually refers to movement sounds within a film that are human or animal influenced; such as grabbing a doorknob, pouring liquid into a glass, and footsteps. During the original movie shoot, even though there are Production Mixers on set capturing the actual audio, many of these sounds are so subtle that they get lost or are not dramatic enough. A Foley Artist actually is in charge of re-creating these sounds in a live performance setting. While watching the film, they will record on a Foley stage, creating live sound effects with multiple props.

First Assistant Director
The First AD position is similar to the Assistant Engineer in the Music Industry. The First AD assists the Director in fulfilling their role usually by taking care of many administrative duties to include the production schedule, scene schedule, rehearsing and directing cast extras, and call sheets.

Second Assistant Director
This director’s responsibilities continue down in importance from the First AD. Some of their duties typically are monitoring the cast through make-up and wardrobe and managing additional assistant directors that have been hired for the film.

Production Assistant
This position is similar to the Intern in the Music Industry.
When entering the film business it is quite common to start out as a Production Assistant (PA). A typical film set will be broken down into Set PAs and Administrative PAs. The Set PAs work with whichever film unit they are assigned and perform general duties that the 2nd Assistant Director instructs them to do. Office PA’s do much of the mundane administrative tasks such as answer phones, get lunch for the cast and crew, pick up odds and ends, and other ‘runner’ duties. Every film will utilize several PAs depending on the size of the production.

The basic things I should know about the Film & audio-visual Communication course?

Movie Careers – Film Producer, Script Supervisors, Editors, Set Designers

Movie Jobs – Film Photography, Makeup, Costume, Props, More